Volume 19, Issue No.3


Tool making, tooling surface, design elements, fragmentation types, free form surface, signed curvature, roughness parameters


In this paper, authors performs analysis of the free–form surface milling based on the fragmentation of the design elements which create active surfaces in tool making. Their analysis is based on fragmentation approach which makes the most of combining CAD, modelling and testing objects in tool making as well as selecting of the fragments with parts of free–form surfaces. Examples being introduced in this paper point out that it is volume based fragmentation of free form surfaces which allows to associate CAD design of tooling parts, their modelling and producing in chosen scale as well as testing different milling strategies. Results also showed that it is the Lining strategy of ball end milling which denotes desired compromise between machining time and surface quality when ball end milling fragments with different signed curvature radii.


Acta Mechanica Slovaca. Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 26–32, ISSN 1335-2393


  A Fragmentation Based Approach to the Free Form Surface Milling


[1] van den Berg, E., et al. Free form feature modelling: concepts and prospects. Computers in Industry. 49, 2012, 217–233.

[2] Pernot J.P. et al.: Incorporating free–form features in aesthetic and engineering product design: State–of–the–artreport. Computers in Industry 59 (2008) 626–637.

[3] Radzevich S.: Conditions of proper sculpture surface machining. Computer Aided Design, 34, 2002, 707–740

[4] Quinn J.A. et al.: Generalized Anisotropic Stratified Surface Sampling. IEEE Transactions on Vizualization and Computer Graphics, 10, 2012, No. 10, 1–16

[5] Lasemi A. et al.: Recent development in CNC machining of freeform surfaces: A state–of–the–art review. Computer Aided Design 42 (2010) 641 – 654

[6] Quinsat Y., Laurent S.: Optimal selection of machining direction for three–axis milling of sculptured parts Int J Adv Manuf Technolology, (2006), DOI 10.1007/s00170–006–0515–5.

[7] Schützer, K. et al.: Using Advanced CAM–Systems for Optimized HSC–Machining of Complex Free Form Surfaces. Journal of the Brazil Society of Mechanical Science. & Engineering. 2007, Vol. 29, No. 3, 313–318

[8] Toh C.K.: A study of the effects of cutter path strategies and orientations in milling. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 152 (2004) 346–356.

[9] Lopez de Lacalle L.N, Lamikiz A, Sanchez J.A, Salgado M.A. Toolpath selection based on the minimum deflection cutting forces in the programming of complex surfaces milling. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 2007;47(2):388 400..

[10] Urbanski J.P. et al.: High speed machining of moulds and dies for net shape manufacture. Materials and Design 21, 2000, 395–402.

[11] Vivancos J. et al.: Optimal machining parameters selection in high speed milling of hardened steels for injection moulds. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 155–156 (2004) 1505–1512

[12] Sun G. et al.: Operation decomposition for freeform surface features in process planning. Computer–Aided Design 33 (2001) 621 – 63

[13] Vijayaraghavan A. et al.: Improving end milling surface finish by workpiece rotation and adaptive tool path spacing. International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 49 (2009) 89–98.

[14] Ning Liu er al.: Surface finish visualisation in high speed, ball nose milling applications. International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 45 (2005) 1152–1161

[15] Ramos A.M. et al.: The influence of finishing milling strategies on texture, roughness and dimensio.nal deviations on the machining of complex surfaces. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 136 (2003) 209–216

[16] Denkena B. et al.: Kinematic and Stochastic Surface Topography of Machined, TiAl6V4–Parts by means of Ball Nose End Milling. Procedia Engineering 19 (2011) 81 – 87.

[17] Weinert K. et al.: Simulation of Surface–Microstructures Resulting from Milling Processes. In: International Conference on Smart Machining Systems, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Files, 2007, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.

Latest Issue

ams 2 2016